Manifesto of the Communist Party A spectre is haunting Europe — the spectre of communism. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as communistic by its opponents in power? Where is the opposition that has not hurled back the branding reproach of communism, against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against its reactionary adversaries?
Define individualism and explain its importance within liberal ideology Essay - Paper Example Define individualism and explain its importance within liberal ideology Essay The liberal ideology is formed on several ideologies - Define individualism and explain its importance within liberal ideology Essay introduction.
Individualism is considered one of the most crucial. But there is notable division between modern and classic liberalists as to what it focuses on with modern liberalists focusing on individuality and classics believe in utilitarianism and and social darwinism. However it is widely agreed that individualism is a key concept within liberal ideology.
Firstly, to discuss the importance of individualism, it must be defined. Individualism is the social theory favouring freedom of action for individuals over collective or state control. Essentially the belief that the individual is more important than the social group.
This is then split further into methodological individualism where the individual is placed at the centre of political theory and ethical individualism where moral priority is given to the interests of the individual.
This appears in the form of a constitutional government that liberal thinkers view as essential with two other aspects to guarantee individualism. The first is the separation of powers where capability would be disbanded between various parts of government in order to prevent a focused centre of power which would be able to destroy individual freedom.
The second is a limited government, where the state is only given enough powers necessary to allow individuals to follow their own eccentric pursuits.
Therefore it can be see individualism plays an important role in liberals ideology as liberal government is designed to protect this. Another place where individualism is important within liberal ideology is with regard to the financial market.
This became prominent through the thinkings of Ricardo and Smith writer of the wealth of nations. This will in theory therefore promote freedom, well-being and prosperity. More recently, John Maynard Keynes put forward the requirement of demand management — that the government should inject money into the economy to ensure the individual can still act in their own interests.
Individualism also plays a crucial part in the opinion of freedom within liberal ideology.
It is not total freedom but freedom under the state and the rule of law. It warrants for people to develop their own abilities and ambitions. John Locke, a 17th century philosopher considered freedom of the individual to be a natural right. Modern liberals have moved away towards individuality, by suggesting life is about more than a selfish pursuit of ones own joys.
Classical liberals have an atomistic view of the individual, due to ideas such as Social Darwinism, that the hard-working and talented would survive and the lazy would fail. Spencer stressed this, and the importance of the individual responsibility.
Utilitarianism is also a key concept within classical thinking on individualism, the idea that the proper course of action is the one that maximises utility. Bentham suggested this was key as individuals ought to be allowed to follow their own happiness.
The focus and analysis of political theorists on what individualism should be shows its importance. To summarise, it is clear that individualism is greatly important in liberal ideology, particularly in the opinion of classical liberalists.
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The Frankfurt School, known more appropriately as Critical Theory, is a philosophical and sociological movement spread across many universities around the world.
It was originally located at the Institute for Social Research (Institut für Sozialforschung), an attached institute at the Goethe. Gerhard Richter. Forty Years of Painting. The Museum of Modern Art. February 14 to May 21, The Art Institute of Chicago. June 22 to September 15, May 20, · Political Ideology Essays (Examples) While on the one hand capitalism stresses the importance of individuality, private wealth and the development of 'natural' economic inequality in the society; communism stresses the sharing and equal use of resource and tends, in theory, to downplay the importance of the individual.
Essay Paper. Define individualism and explain its importance within liberal ideology Essay. The liberal ideology is formed on several ideologies - Define individualism and explain its importance within liberal ideology Essay introduction.
Individualism is considered one of the most crucial.