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A General History InAbdul-Aziz ibn Sa'ud-the founder and first King of Saudi Arabia -took control of the Hijaz the Western Province of Saudi Arabiaending a long series of battles to consolidate and unite a vast but fragmented territory.
Abdul-Aziz had his eyes on implementing a nation building process which would fit the needs and aspirations of the people while growing alongside their assessment of what would best serve the nation and its citizens.
National unity was realized because Abdul-Aziz applied the doctrine of Islam to public policy, justice, and all other fields of life.
He succeeded not only in unifying the country, but also in proving the credibility of the Islamic solution and demonstrating its validity for his time and all times. Abdul-Aziz focused gradually on transforming a simple administrative structure into a series of well-defined and well-organized institutions which administered and assisted the executive authority in managing the affairs of an expanding territory.
Focusing on the needs of his people, Abdul-Aziz took the first steps toward inaugurating a system of governance and implementing the Islamic-based principle of consultation, as presented by the Qur'an Islam's Holy Book and authentic Sunnah Prophet Traditions.
By August,the "Makkah Consultative Council," having greater powers, was formed. This new council was responsible for overseeing communication, trade, education, the court system, internal security, and municipal affairs. It was also the center of the General Consultative Council, which played a significant role in the creation of the Council of Ministers.
In AugustAbdul-Aziz approved a comprehensive constitution that was called the Basic Regulation al-Talimat al-Assasiah for the province of Hijaz. The document was in line with the constitutions of many modern states, and may also be regarded as the precursor for future ones.
The Hijaz Constitution consisted of nine sections and seventy-nine articles, which dealt with core constitutional issues such as the System of Government, the Administration's Responsibility, the Affairs of the Hijazi Kingdom, the Department of Accounts, the Inspectorate General, the Kingdom's Employees, the General Municipal Councils, and the Municipal Administration Committees.
Most importantly, the fourth article of this document established several governmental bodies, which included the Consultative Council, Administrative Councils, District Councils, and Village and Tribal Councils. Recommending courses of action for administrative reform, the commission sent a proposal for a new statute of the Consultative Council that was approved by Abdul-Aziz in July, This new Consultative Council was in charge of informing the government about any errors in the application of laws and statutes.
Furthermore, it was responsible for conducting work in various areas, which included budgets, construction project concessions and licenses, expropriation of public property, employment of foreign nationals, and law and statute legislation.
The Council of Deputies functioned for twenty three years. It served like a small council of ministers for the Hijaz, until the creation of the council of Ministers inwhich brought all the provinces of the Kingdom under its own jurisdiction.
This major step brought all Saudi Arabian citizens under the umbrella of a unified constitutional and administrative system, all while allowing for the completion of new structures for the Kingdom. The discovery of oil in the Eastern Province in the s coupled with the increasing complexity of government affairs rendered the old type of administration inadequate.
This new state successfully established diplomatic relations based on political representation; it also appointed ambassadors. Furthering his father's efforts, King Sa'ud ibn Abdul-Aziz held the first session of the Council of Ministers in March, At the time of its foundation, the Council of Ministers served as an advisory body to the King.
ByFaisal ibn Abdul-Aziz, Crown Prince and Prime Minister, transformed the Council of Ministers into a legislative, executive, and administrative body with decision-making abilities. Most of the constitutional basics in the Kingdom were embedded in the Law of the Council of Ministers.
Between andFaisal made a serious attempt to introduce modern constitutionalism into the Kingdom; however, this attempt did not go beyond the proposal phase.As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from timberdesignmag.com There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about , years ago.
It is now believed that the first modern humans to spread east across Asia left Africa about 75, years ago across the Bab-el-Mandeb connecting Horn of Africa and Arabia. The Arabian peninsula is regarded as a central figure in our understanding of hominin evolution and dispersals.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights in resolution /45, adopted on 4 March , decided to appoint a Special Rapporteur on violence against women, including its causes and consequences.
The mandate was extended by the Commission on Human Rights in , at its 59th session in. The deepest differences between Muslims and Westerners concern not politics but sexuality. Each side has a long history of looking at the other's sexual mores with a mixture of astonishment and disgust.
HTML Full text] [Mobile Full text] [Sword Plugin for Repository] Beta: Original Article: A pilot study for evaluation of knowledge and common practises of nursing staff regarding use of multidose injection vials and their microbial contamination rate in a super-specialty hospital Mohit Bhatia, Bibhabati Mishra, Poonam Sood Loomba, Vinita Dogra.
The Basic Law of Saudi Arabia does not guarantee gender equality.
 Article 8 requires that the government be premised on equality in accordance with Sharia law, but under Sharia law, women are considered to be legal minors, under the control of their mahram.  Saudi Arabia ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women .