Dietary carbohydrate, from which humans gain energy, enter the body in complex forms, such as disaccharides and the polymers starch amylose and amylopectin and glycogen. The polymer cellulose is also consumed but not digested. The first step in the metabolism of digestible carbohydrate is the conversion of the higher polymers to the simpler, soluble monosaccharide forms that can be transported across the intestinal wall and delivered to the tissues. The breakdown of polymeric sugars begins in the mouth.
Criteria, which clinically establish an individual as suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus, include: One can easily interconvert these values using the following formulas: These graphs represent typical glucose tolerance curves for a normal person and one with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM, type 2 diabetes: The dotted lines indicate the range of glucose concentration expected in a normal individual during an OGTT.
Two main classifications of diabetes mellitus exist, idiopathic and secondary. Idiopathic diabetes is divided into two main types; insulin dependent and non-insulin-dependent. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM more commonly referred to as type 1 diabetes is defined by the development of ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy.
See the Diabetic Ketoacidosis diagnosis and treatment page. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM more commonly referred to as type 2 diabetes is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia but rarely leads to ketoacidosis. Type 2 diabetes generally manifests after age 40 and therefore has the obsolete name of adult onset-type diabetes.
However, due to the rising rates of adolescent obesity in industrialized countries there is an increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes in pre- and postpubescent children.
Type 2 diabetes can also result from genetics defects that cause both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency.
There are two main forms of type 2 diabetes: Late onset associated with obesity. Late onset not associated with obesity.
There is a strong correlation between obesity and the onset of type 2 diabetes with its associated insulin resistance. Many children are obese and are developing type 2 diabetes at an alarming epidemic rate.
The dramatic rise in obesity in the US has lead to an equally alarming increase in the percentage of the population who suffer from the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors, one of which involves insulin resistance characteristic in type 2 diabetes.
It should be pointed out that obesity alone does not always lead to insulin resistance as some individuals who are obese do not experience insulin resistance and conversely, some individuals who manifest insulin resistance are not obese.
These latter observations point to the added role of genetics in the acquisition of insulin resistance. Secondary, or other specific types of diabetes mellitus are the result of many causes including: Maturity onset type diabetes of the young MODY was previously considered to be a third form of type 2 diabetes.
However, with the discovery of specific mutations leading to MODY, it is now classified under secondary or other specific types of diabetes.
MODY is characterized by onset prior to age Evidence indicates that mutations in at least 14 different genes have been correlated with the development of various forms of MODY. Mutations in the 10 genes described here are all clearly correlated to MODY: This gene is also known as transcription factor TCF Autosomal dominant disorder resulting from mutations in the glucokinase GCK gene.
This gene is also known as hepatocyte transcription factor-1 TCF1. The homeodomain transcription factor insulin promoter factor-1 IPF This gene is more commonly called PDX1 which is derived from pancreas duodenum homeobox This gene is also known as hepatocyte transcription factor-2 TCF2.
In humans, mutations in the HNF1B gene are associated with pancreatic hypoplasia, defective kidney development and genital malformations.Download dit gratis diabetes kookboek met lekkere, gezonde diabetes recepten.
Leer meer over 'suikerziekte' of beter: het verschil tussen diabetes type 1 en 2. People with type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop HHS, formerly known as hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma. Characteristics of HHS are 1) plasma glucose ≥ mg/dl, 2) serum osmolality ≥ mOsm/kg, 3) dehydration up to an average of 9 L, 4) serum pH > , 5) small ketones and absent to low ketonemia, and 6) altered consciousness.
1. Summary. α-Lipoic acid (LA), also known as thioctic acid, is a naturally occurring compound that is synthesized in small amounts by humans. (More information) Endogenously synthesized LA is bound to protein and functions as a cofactor for several important mitochondrial enzymes.
(More information). ⇑ Back to the top ⇑ Catalytic mechanism of phosphopentose epimerase. Also this reaction, like those catalyzed by 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and ribose 5-phosphate isomerase, proceeds through the formation of an enediol intermediate, but with the double bond between C-2 and C-3 and not between C-1 and C During the reaction an amino acid residue present in the active site of the.
To receive news and publication updates for Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, enter your email address in the box below. The pentose phosphate pathway: contents in brief.
What is the pentose phosphate pathway? The elucidation of the pentose phosphate pathway; Functions of NADPH and ribose 5-phosphate.