Research Methods To understand the use of statistics, one needs to know a little bit about experimental design or how a researcher conducts investigations.
Table of Contents There are many ways to get information. The most common research methods are: A literature search involves reviewing all readily available materials.
These materials can include internal company information, relevant trade publications, newspapers, magazines, annual reports, company literature, on-line data bases, and Reaserch method other published materials.
It is a very inexpensive method of gathering information, although it often does not yield timely information. Literature searches over the web are the fastest, while library literature searches can take between one and eight weeks. Talking with people is a good way to get information during the initial stages of a research project.
It can be used to gather information that is not publicly available, or that is too new to be found in the literature. Examples might include meetings with prospects, customers, suppliers, and other types of business conversations at trade shows, seminars, and association meetings.
Although often valuable, the information has questionable validity because it is highly subjective and might not be representative of the population.
A focus group is used as a preliminary research technique to explore peoples ideas and attitudes. It is often used to test new approaches such as products or advertisingand to discover customer concerns.
A group of 6 to 20 people meet in a conference-room-like setting with a trained moderator.
The room usually contains a one-way mirror for viewing, including audio and video capabilities. The moderator leads the group's discussion and keeps the focus on the areas you want to explore. Focus groups can be conducted within a couple of weeks and cost between two and three thousand dollars.
Their disadvantage is that the sample is small and may not be representative of the population in general. Personal interviews are a way to get in-depth and comprehensive information.
They involve one person interviewing another person for personal or detailed information. Typically, an interviewer will ask questions from a written questionnaire and record the answers verbatim.
Sometimes, the questionnaire is simply a list of topics that the research wants to discuss with an industry expert. Personal interviews because of their expense are generally used only when subjects are not likely to respond to other survey methods.
Telephone surveys are the fastest method of gathering information from a relatively large sample respondents.
The interviewer follows a prepared script that is essentially the same as a written questionnaire. However, unlike a mail survey, the telephone survey allows the opportunity for some opinion probing.
Telephone surveys generally last less than ten minutes. Typical costs are between four and six thousand dollars, and they can be completed in two to four weeks.research it is useful to distinguish between two different styles of research: theory testing and theory building (Figure ).
Theory building Theory building is a process in which research begins with observations and uses inductive reasoning to derive a theory from these observations.
The most common research methods are: literature searches, talking with people, focus groups, personal interviews, telephone surveys, mail surveys, email surveys, and internet surveys.
, and any other published materials. It is a very inexpensive method of gathering information, although it often does not yield timely information.
The process used to collect information and data for the purpose of making business decisions. The methodology may include publication research, interviews, surveys and other research techniques, and could include both present and historical information.
Research Methods. To understand the use of statistics, one needs to know a little bit about experimental design or how a researcher conducts investigations.
There are several important aspects to research methodology.
This is a summary of the key concepts in scientific research and an attempt to erase some common misconceptions in science. This ten chapter research methods text is written for both undergraduate and graduate students in education, psychology, and the social sciences. It focuses on the basics of research design and the critical analysis of professional research in the social sciences from developing a theory, selecting.