It entered into frequent territorial disputes with neighbouring Luccaoften violent, and its need for imports grew commensurately.
Resident Christians were considered people of the book and so were tolerated as Dhimmiand inter-marriage was not uncommon. Exaggerated propaganda prompted resentment toward Muslims, and negative and defamatory information made this a key justification.
He left a burgeoning treasury, at the expense of neglecting domestic affairs and ignoring the cost of incorporating his conquests into the Byzantine Ecumene.
Their efforts to spend the Byzantine economy back into prosperity only resulted in burgeoning inflation. Following the defeat at the Battle of Manzikert inthe Seljuq Turks had taken over almost all of Anatolia, and the Empire descended into frequent civil wars.
In the West an aggressive and reformist Papacy came into conflict with both the Eastern Empire and Western secular monarchs, leading to the East-West Schism in  and the Investiture Controversywhich had started around and was still on-going during the First Crusade.
The papacy began to assert its independence from secular rulers, marshaling arguments for the proper use of armed force by Christians. The result was intense Christian piety, interest in religious affairs, and religious propaganda advocating " Just War " in order to retake Palestine from the Muslims.
Taking part in such a war was seen as a form of penancewhich could remit sins.
In Alexius sent envoys to the west requesting military assistance against the Seljuks. Alexios needed to reinforce his tagmata, so the embassy likely sought to recruit mercenaries and may have exaggerated the dangers facing the Eastern Empire in order to secure the needed troops.
In November Urban called the Council of Clermont to discuss the matter, further urging the bishops and abbots whom he addressed directly to bring with them the prominent lords in their provinces.
The Council lasted from 19 to 28 November, attended by nearly clerics from throughout France. Urban discussed Cluniac reforms of the Church and extended the excommunication of Philip I of France.
Urban spoke for the first time on 27 November about the problems in the east, promoting the struggle of western Christians against the Muslims who had occupied the Holy Land and were attacking the Eastern Roman Empire. There are six main sources of information on the Council: All the accounts were written much later following different literary traditions and differing widely.
Robert records that the pope asked western Christians, poor and rich, to come to the aid of the Byzantine Empire because " Deus vult ," "God wills it".
According to Robert, Urban listed various gruesome offenses of the Muslims,  and more alleged atrocities were expressed in inflammatory images derived from hagiography. Perhaps with the wisdom of hindsight, Robert has Urban advise that none but knights should go, not the old and feeble, nor priests without the permission of their bishops, "for such are more of a hindrance than aid, more of a burden than advantage A later version by Baldric, archbishop of Dol, reported the sermon as focusing on the offenses of the Muslims and the reconquest of the Holy Land, and that Urban deplored the violence of the Christian knights of Gaul.
He wanted the violence of knights to be ennobled in the service of Christ, defending the churches of the East as if defending a mother. Guibert, abbot of Nogent, also has Urban emphasize the reconquest of the Holy Land more than providing aid to the Greeks or other Christians there.
Urban apparently knew in advance of the day that Raymond IV of Toulouse was prepared to take up arms.
Urban himself spent a few months preaching the Crusade in France, while papal legates spread the word in the south of Italy, during which time the focus presumably turned from helping Alexios to taking Jerusalem.
The general population probably understood this to be the point of the Crusade in the first place. Rather he explicitly calls for the military "liberation" of the Eastern Churches and appoints Adhemar of Le Puy to lead the Crusade, to set out on the day of the Assumption of Mary15 August.According to Norman Davies, the Crusades contradicted the Peace and Truce of God supported by Urban and reinforced the connection between Western Christendom, feudalism, and militarism.
The formation of military religious orders scandalised the Orthodox Byzantines, and Crusaders pillaged countries they crossed on their journey east.
In the Pisan annals record that a "fleet from Spain" came to destroy the city, which suggests that the aggression was planned and organised and not merely a piratical raid. Crusades - Religious-military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims First Crusades • Initiated by Pope Urban II in A.D.
• Recaptured Jerusalem • Nearly swept the Arabs from the Mediterranean.
The Crusades were religious conflicts during the High Middle Ages through the end of the Late Middle Ages, conducted under the sanction of the Latin Catholic Church. Pope Urban II proclaimed the first crusade in with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and.
In the Pisan annals record that a "fleet from Spain" came to destroy the city, which suggests that the aggression was planned and organised and not merely a piratical raid. "Crusade" is a modern term, from the French croisade and Spanish cruzada, that was applied to the medieval military expeditions only in retrospect.
The French form of the word first appears in the L'Histoire des Croisades written by A. de Clermont and published in .