Where can I learn more about key reinstallation attacks? Do we now need WPA3? No, luckily implementations can be patched in a backwards-compatible manner. This means a patched client can still communicate with an unpatched access point APand vice versa.
This section may stray from the topic of the article. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. May Game studies or gaming theory is a discipline that deals with the critical study of games, game design, players, and their role in society and culture.
Prior to the late-twentieth century, the academic study of games was rare and limited to fields such as history and anthropology. As the video game revolution took off in the early s, so did academic interest in games, resulting in a field that draws on diverse methodologies and schools of thought.
These influences may be characterized broadly in three ways: More sociologically informed research has sought to move away from simplistic ideas of gaming as either 'negative' or 'positive', but rather seeking to understand its role and location in the complexities of everyday life.
The main question this approach deals with can be summarized as "How can we create better games? Different approaches to studying this problem have included looking at describing how to design games   and extracting guidelines and rules of thumb for making better games  Strategic decision making[ edit ] Main article: Game theory Game theory is a study of strategic decision making.
Specifically, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers". The games studied in game theory are well-defined mathematical objects.
To be fully defined, a game must specify the following elements: Rasmusen refers to these four "essential elements" by the acronym "PAPI". These equilibrium strategies determine an equilibrium to the game—a stable state in which either one outcome occurs or a set of outcomes occur with known probability.
Design elements[ edit ] Games can be characterized by "what the player does"  and what the player experiences. This is often referred to as gameplay.
Major key elements identified in this context are tools and rules that define the overall context of game. Tools of play[ edit ] Games are often classified by the components required to play them e. In places where the use of leather is well established, the ball has been a popular game piece throughout recorded history, resulting in a worldwide popularity of ball games such as rugbybasketballfootballcrickettennisand volleyball.
Other tools are more idiosyncratic to a certain region. Many countries in Europe, for instance, have unique standard decks of playing cards.
Other games such as chess may be traced primarily through the development and evolution of its game pieces. Many game tools are tokens, meant to represent other things. A token may be a pawn on a board, play moneyor an intangible item such as a point scored.
Games such as hide-and-seek or tag do not utilise any obvious tool; rather, their interactivity is defined by the environment. Games with the same or similar rules may have different gameplay if the environment is altered.
For example, hide-and-seek in a school building differs from the same game in a park; an auto race can be radically different depending on the track or street course, even with the same cars. Game mechanicsgameplayand balance game design Whereas games are often characterized by their tools, they are often defined by their rules.
While rules are subject to variations and changesenough change in the rules usually results in a "new" game. There are exceptions to this in that some games deliberately involve the changing of their own rules, but even then there are often immutable meta -rules.
Rules generally determine turn order, the rights and responsibilities of the players, each player's goals, and how game components interact with each other in to produce changes in a game's state. Player rights may include when they may spend resources or move tokens.
Victory conditions[ edit ] Common win conditions are being first to amass a certain quota of points or tokens as in Settlers of Catanhaving the greatest number of tokens at the end of the game as in Monopolysome relationship of one's game tokens to those of one's opponent as in chess's checkmateor reaching a certain point in a storyline as in most roleplay-games.
Single or multiplayer[ edit ] Most games require multiple players. Single-player games are unique in respect to the type of challenges a player faces.
Unlike a game with multiple players competing with or against each other to reach the game's goal, a single-player game is against an element of the environment, against one's own skills, against time, or against chance.
This is also true of cooperative gamesin which multiple players share a common goal and win or lose together. Many games described as "single-player" or "cooperative" could alternatively be described as puzzles or recreations, in that they do not involve strategic behavior as defined by game theoryin which the expected reaction of an opponent to a possible move becomes a factor in choosing which move to make.
Games against opponents simulated with artificial intelligence differ from other single-player games in that the algorithms used usually do incorporate strategic behavior.By David I. Schwartz This paper describes a preliminary approach to teaching students about game design and development by making a custom game controller in a single course.
RIT’s first seminar in alternative game controller design introduced students to game input mechanisms and encouraged innovation.
Becoming a Video Game Designer essaysIt has been 10 years since I became an addicted gamer when I was 11 years old. I always dreamed of designing a game of my own.
I have came up with many nice ideas about video games from what I have played and I believed one day my dream will come true. However, t. As "user research lead" at Microsoft Studios, Nichols is one of a growing number of psychologists in the video game industry.
With the number of games and platforms exploding, companies that design and develop video games are increasingly turning to psychologists for help analyzing data and making sure their products are as effective . Get Computer and Video Game Design industry background information to gain a better understanding of what it is like to work within this career field.
In this paper we present the MDA framework (standing for Mechanics, Dynamics, and Aesthetics), developed and taught as part of the Game Design and Tuning Workshop at.
ArtsIT, Interactivity & Game Creation is meant to be a place where people in arts, with a keen interest in modern IT technologies, meet with people in IT, having strong ties to arts in their works.