Nikola Tesla free energy: I have harnessed the cosmic rays and caused them to operate a motive device. Cosmic ray investigation is a subject that is very close to me. I was the first to discover these rays and I naturally feel toward them as I would toward my own flesh and blood.
However, after assuming they had succeeded, they retracted support for the idea shortly after publication because they found Planck's second theory may not apply to their example.
In Walther Nernst proposed that empty space was filled with zero-point electromagnetic radiation. There is a weighty argument to be adduced in favour of the aether hypothesis.
To deny the aether is ultimately to assume that empty space has no physical qualities whatever.
The fundamental facts of mechanics do not harmonize with this view According to the general Zero energy theory of relativity space without aether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time measuring-rods and clocksnor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense.
But this aether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it.
Their calculations of the melting points of hydrogen, argon and mercury led them to conclude that the results provided evidence for a zero-point energy. Moreover, they suggested correctly, as was later verified by Simon  that this quantity was responsible for the difficulty in solidifying helium even at absolute zero.
In Robert Mulliken  provided direct evidence for the zero-point energy of molecular vibrations by comparing the band spectrum of B10O and B11O: Then just a year later in with the development of matrix mechanics in Werner Heisenberg 's famous article " Quantum theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations " the zero-point energy was derived from quantum mechanics.
According to classical ideas, the fact that an accelerating charge loses energy by radiating implied that an electron should spiral into the nucleus and that atoms should not be stable.
This problem of classical mechanics was nicely summarized by James Hopwood Jeans in For the forces between two charges at zero distance would be infinite; we should have charges of opposite sign continually rushing together and, when once together, no force would tend to shrink into nothing or to diminish indefinitely in size"  This resolution to this puzzle came in with Schrodinger's famous equation.
In a joint paper with Max Born and Werner Heisenberg he considered the field inside a cavity as a superposition of quantum harmonic oscillators.
In his calculation he found that in addition to the "thermal energy" of the oscillators there also had to exist infinite zero-point energy term.
He was able to obtain the same fluctuation formula that Einstein had obtained in Dirac's work was seen as crucially important to the emerging field of quantum mechanics; it dealt directly with the process in which "particles" are actually created: The theory showed that spontaneous emission depends upon the zero-point energy fluctuations of the electromagnetic field in order to get started.
Similarly, when a photon is created emittedit is occasionally useful to imagine that the photon has made a transition out of the vacuum state. In the words of Dirac: When a light-quantum is absorbed it can be considered to jump into this zero state, and when one is emitted it can be considered to jump from the zero state to one in which it is physically in evidence, so that it appears to have been created.
Since there is no limit to the number of light-quanta that may be created in this way, we must suppose that there are an infinite number of light quanta in the zero state Contemporary physicists, when asked to give a physical explanation for spontaneous emission, generally invoke the zero-point energy of the electromagnetic field.
This view was popularized by Victor Weisskopf who in wrote: Therefore electromagnetic oscillations also can never cease completely. Thus the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field has as its consequence zero point oscillations of the field strength in the lowest energy state, in which there are no light quanta in space The zero point oscillations act on an electron in the same way as ordinary electrical oscillations do.
They can change the eigenstate of the electron, but only in a transition to a state with the lowest energy, since empty space can only take away energy, and not give it up.
In this way spontaneous radiation arises as a consequence of the existence of these unique field strengths corresponding to zero point oscillations. Thus spontaneous radiation is induced radiation of light quanta produced by zero point oscillations of empty space This view was also later supported by Theodore Welton who argued that spontaneous emission "can be thought of as forced emission taking place under the action of the fluctuating field.
Throughout the s improvements in microwave technology made it possible to take more precise measurements of the shift of the levels of a hydrogen atomnow known as the Lamb shift and measurement of the magnetic moment of the electron.
Renormalization was originally developed by Hans Kramers  and also Victor Weisskopf and first successfully applied to calculate a finite value for the Lamb shift by Hans Bethe In Wolfgang Pauli 's Nobel lecture  he made clear his opposition to the idea of zero-point energy stating "It is clear that this zero-point energy has no physical reality".
Hendrik Casimir In Hendrik Casimir   showed that one consequence of the zero-point field is an attractive force between two uncharged, perfectly conducting parallel plates, the so-called Casimir effect.
At the time, Casimir was studying the properties of "colloidal solutions".The energy that is taken into the coil through the small energy window (zero-point), call it what you will, appears to be the key to the success of this system.
It is at this zero-point where energy is condensed into positive and negative components of current. Zero-point energy (ZPE) is the difference between the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have, and the classical minimum energy of the system.
Unlike in classical mechanics, quantum systems constantly fluctuate in their lowest energy state due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. As well as atoms and molecules, the empty space of the vacuum has these properties. The zero point energy of a molecule is defined as the finite energy (above hν where h is Planck's constant and ν is the frequency of the oscillation) possessed by that molecule at 0 K.
Isotope substitution changes the mass of the molecule and results in a shift in the zero point energy. Zero-point energy (ZPE) is the difference between the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have, and the classical minimum energy of the system.
Unlike in classical mechanics, quantum systems constantly fluctuate in their lowest energy state due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. As well as atoms and . Activation energy: Activation energy, in chemistry, the minimum amount of energy that is required to activate atoms or molecules to a condition in which they can undergo chemical transformation or physical transport.
In transition-state theory, the activation energy is the difference in energy content between atoms. Zero Point Energy In classical physics, empty space is called the vacuum. The classical vacuum is utterly featureless. However, in quantum theory, the vacuum is a much more complex entity.